UPSC PHYSICS OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. (a) Mechanics of Particles : Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced … Read more

UPSC PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL

PAPER I History and Problems of Philosophy 1. Plato and Aristotle : Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality. 2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz); Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom. 3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) : Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism. 4. … Read more

UPSC MEDICAL SCIENCE OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Human Anatomy : Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee. Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus. Applied anatomy of diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region. Clinical anatomy of kidney, … Read more

UPSC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Mechanics : 1.1 Mechanics of Rigid Bodies : Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics. 1.2 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies : Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, … Read more

UPSC MATHEMATICS OPTIONAL

PAPER I (1) Linear Algebra : Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimensions, Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation. Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rankof a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigenvalues … Read more

UPSC MANAGEMENT OPTIONAL

The candidate should make a study of the concept of development of Management as science and art drawing upon the contributions of leading thinkers of management and apply the concepts to the real life of government and business decision-making keeping in view the changes in the strategic and operative environment. PAPER I 1. Managerial Function … Read more

UPSC LAW OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I Constitutional and administrative Law : 1. Constitution and Constitutionalism:The distinctive features of the Constitution. 2. Fundamental Rights—Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority. 3. Relationship between Fundamental rights, Directive principles and Fundamental duties. 4. Constitutional Position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers. 5. Governor and his powers. 6. … Read more

UPSC HISTORY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I 1. Sources Archaeological sources : Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments. Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature, Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers. 2. Pre-history and Proto-history : Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic). 3. … Read more

UPSC GEOLOGY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I 1. General Geology : The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes—causes and products, Volcanic belts. Earthquakes—causes, effects, seismic of zone of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drift; Seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy. 2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing : Basic concepts of geomorphology. … Read more

UPSC GEOGRAPHY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY Physical Geography : 1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land … Read more