UPSC ZOOLOGY OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Non-chordata and Chordata : (a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses: Acoelomate and Coelomate, Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateria and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry. (b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction, sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis. Plasmodium and Leishmania. (c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal … Read more

UPSC STATISTICS OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Probability : Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable function. distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuous-type random variable, probability mass function, probability density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments … Read more

UPSC SOCIOLOGY OPTIONAL

PAPER I FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIOLOGY 1. Sociology – The Discipline: (a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology. (b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences. (c) Sociology and common sense. 2. Sociology as Science: (a) Science, scientific method and critique. (b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology. (c) … Read more

UPSC PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OPTIONAL

PAPER I Administration Theory 1. Introduction : Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration, Wilson’s vision of Public Administration, Evolution of the discipline and its present status. New Public Administration, Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management. 2. Administrative Thought : Scientific Management and Scientific Management … Read more

UPSC PSYCHOLOGY OPTIONAL

PAPER I Foundations of Psychology 1. Introduction : Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st centrury; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems. 2. Methods of Psychology : Types of research : Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; … Read more

UPSC POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OPTIONAL

PAPER I Political Theory and Indian Politics : 1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches. 2. Theories of state : Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist. 3. Justice : Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques. 4. Equality : Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and … Read more

UPSC PHYSICS OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. (a) Mechanics of Particles : Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced … Read more

UPSC PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL

PAPER I History and Problems of Philosophy 1. Plato and Aristotle : Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality. 2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz); Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom. 3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) : Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism. 4. … Read more

UPSC MEDICAL SCIENCE OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Human Anatomy : Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee. Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus. Applied anatomy of diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region. Clinical anatomy of kidney, … Read more

UPSC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Mechanics : 1.1 Mechanics of Rigid Bodies : Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics. 1.2 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies : Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, … Read more