UPSC LAW OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I Constitutional and administrative Law : 1. Constitution and Constitutionalism:The distinctive features of the Constitution. 2. Fundamental Rights—Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority. 3. Relationship between Fundamental rights, Directive principles and Fundamental duties. 4. Constitutional Position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers. 5. Governor and his powers. 6. … Read more

UPSC HISTORY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I 1. Sources Archaeological sources : Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments. Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature, Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers. 2. Pre-history and Proto-history : Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic). 3. … Read more

UPSC GEOLOGY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I 1. General Geology : The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes—causes and products, Volcanic belts. Earthquakes—causes, effects, seismic of zone of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drift; Seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy. 2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing : Basic concepts of geomorphology. … Read more

UPSC GEOGRAPHY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY Physical Geography : 1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land … Read more

UPSC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I 1. Circuits—Theory : Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks. 2. Signals and Systems : Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time … Read more

UPSC ECONOMICS OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I 1. Advanced Micro Economics : (a) Marshallian and Varrasiam Approaches to Price determination. (b) Alternative Distribution Theories; Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki. (c) Markets Structure: Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly. (d) Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks and Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A. K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function. 2. Advance Macro Economics: Approaches to Employment Income and … Read more

UPSC COMMERCE AND ACCOUNTANCY OPTIONAL

PAPER I Accounting and Finance Accounting, Taxation & Auditing 1. Financing Accounting : Accounting as a financial information system; Impact of behavioural sciences. Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Research and Development Costs, Long-term Construction Contracts, Revenue Recognition, Fixed Assets, Contingencies, Foreign Exchange Transactions, Investments and Government Grants, Cash Flow Statement, Earnings per Share. … Read more

UPSC CIVIL ENGINEERING OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis. 1.1 Engineering Mechanics : Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non- Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system. … Read more

UPSC CHEMISTRY OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Atomic Structure : Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in one- dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals. 2. Chemical bonding : Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general … Read more

UPSC BOTANY OPTIONAL

PAPER I 1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology : Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of … Read more