UPSC HISTORY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS

PAPER I

1. Sources

Archaeological sources : Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.

Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature,

Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history : Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization : Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures : Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period : Expansions of Aryans in India : Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas : Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire : Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) : Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: — Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs. — The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”. — Agrarian economy and urban settlements. — Trade and commerce. — Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order. — Condition of women. — Indian science and technology.

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200: — Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa. — Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism. — Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India. — Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

15. The Thirteenth Century: — Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success. — Economic, Social and cultural consequences. — Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans. — Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century:

— “The Khalji Revolution”. — Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure. — Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq. — Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.

17.Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: — Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement. — Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture. — Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy: — Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat. — Malwa, Bahmanids. — The Vijayanagara Empire. — Lodis. — Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun. — The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration. — Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture: — Regional cultures specificities. — Literary traditions. — Provincial architectural. — Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar: — Conquests and consolidation of empire. — Establishment of jagir and mansab systems. — Rajput policy. — Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy. — Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century: — Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. — The Empire and the Zamindars. Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply. — Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. — Nature of the Mughal State. — Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts. — The Ahom kingdom. — Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries: — Population Agricultural and craft production. — Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution. — Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems. — Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women. — Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23. Culture during Mughal Empire: — Persian histories and other literature. — Hindi and religious literatures. — Mughal architecture. — Mughal painting. — Provincial architecture and painting. — Classical music. — Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century: — Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire. — The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh. — Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas. — The Maratha fiscal and financial system. — Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761. — State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.

PAPER II

1. European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India: Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule: (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society. (b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission;the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement. The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas: (i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau. (ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies. (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics : (i) European States System. (ii) American Revolution and the Constitution. (iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815. (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery. (v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization : (i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society. (ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany, Russia, Japan. (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System : (i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century. (ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy. (iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism : (i) South and South-East Asia. (ii) Latin America and South Africa. (iii) Australia. (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution : (i) 19th Century European revolutions. (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921. (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany. (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

22. World Wars : (i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal implications. (ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences. (iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences.

23. The World after World War II: (i) Emergence of Two power blocs. (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment. (iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24 . Liberation from Colonial Rule : (i) Latin America-Bolivar. (ii) Arab World-Egypt. (iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy. (iv)South-East Asia-Vietnam.

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment : (i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.

26. Unification of Europe : (i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community. (ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community (iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World : (i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991. (ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001. (iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

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